Garry Gray

Garry Gray
Associate Professor
Office: COR A361

PhD (University of Toronto, 2008), Postdoctoral Fellow (Harvard University, 2009-2014)

Area of expertise

Criminology, Public Health, Ethics, Institutions, Socio-Legal Studies

Garry Gray is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Victoria.

From 2011-2015, Gray was a Research Fellow at the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics at Harvard Law School where he conducted research on the social organization of unethical behaviour inside a variety of institutions of public trust.  From 2009-2011, Gray was a Research Fellow in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health, where he researched the influence of organizational culture on medical errors and ethical decision-making inside hospital settings. At Harvard University, Gray co-designed, taught and introduced into the curriculum a new course on transdisciplinary research.

Gray received his PhD in Sociology from the University of Toronto (2008). He holds an MA in Criminology from the Centre of Criminology and Socio-legal Studies at the University of Toronto and an Hon. BA double major in Criminology and Sociology at the University of Toronto.

His work has been published internationally in journals such as the American Journal of Sociology, British Journal of Criminology, Revue Droit et Société, Canadian Review of Sociology, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, and the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics.


  • criminology
  • institutional corruption
  • regulation and compliance
  • behavioural ethics
  • organizational culture
  • health and safety
  • sociology of science
  • qualitative methods and ethnography



2023    Albert, Katelin, and Garry Gray. "Keeping up with COVID-19 Information: Capacity Issues and Knowledge Uncertainty Early in the Pandemic." Canadian Review of Sociology.

Free Open Access:

2023    Morrow, Richard, Barbara Mintzes, Garry Gray, Michael R. Law, Scott Garrison, and Colin Dormuth. "Public Reporting of Clinical Trial Findings as an Ethical Responsiblity to Participants: A Qualitative Study." British Medical Journal (BMJ) Open 13(3): 13:e068221

Free Open Access:

2023    Morrow, Richard, Barbara Mintzes, Garry Gray, Michael R. Law, Scott Garrison, and Colin Dormuth. "Factors Relating to Nonpublication and Publication Bias in Clinical Trials in Canada: A Qualitative Interview Study." British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 89(3): 1198-1206.

Available at:

2022    Morrow, Richard, Barbara Mintzes, Garry Gray, Michael Law, Scott Garrison, and Colin Dormuth. "Industry Sponsor Influence in Clinical Trial Reporting in Canada: A Qualitative Interview Study." Clinical Therapeutics 44(3): 374-388

Available at:

2021    Gray, Garry, and Benjamin Van Rooji. "Regulatory Disempowerment: How Enabling and Controlling Forms of Power Obstruct Citizen-base Regulation." Regulation & Governance 15(3): 800-821

Available Open Access:

2021    Gray, Garry. "Qualitative Methods and te Compliance Imagination". in Benjamin van Rooji and Daniel Sokol (Eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Compliance (pp. 780-787). Cambridge University Press

Available at:

2019    Gray, Garry, and Brigitte Benning. "Crowdsourcing Criminology: Social Media and Citizen Policing in Missing Person Cases." SAGE Open 9(4): 1-15.

2019    Gray, Garry, and Katy Lindsay. "Workplace Violence: Examining Interpersonal and Impersonal Violence among Truck Drivers." Law & Policy 41(3): 271-285

2019    Gray, Garry. "A Bird's Eye View of Driving Safety Culture: Truck Drivers' Perceptions of Unsafe Driving Behaviours near their Trucks." WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment & Rehabilitation 64(2): 187-194

2019    Gray, Garry, and Jérôme Pélisse. "Frontline Workers and the Role of Legal and Regulatory Intermediaries." Sciences Po Laboratory for Interdisciplinary Evaluation of Public Policies (LIEPP) Working Paper No. 94:1-16 (peer reviewed). ffhal-02316029f

2018    Gray, Garry. "The Sociology of Near Misses: A Methodological Framework for Studying Events that 'Almost Happened'. Canadidan Journal of Sociology 43(2): 171-190.

2018    Gray, Garry, and William Carroll. "Mapping Corporate Influence and Institutional Corruption Inside Canadian Universities" Critical Criminology 26(4): 491-507.

2018    McCartney, Kevin, and Garry Gray. "Big Oil U: Canadian Media Coverage of Corporate Obstructionism and Institutional Corruption at the University of Calgary." Canadian Journal of Sociology 43(4): 299-324.

2017    Almond, Paul, and Garry Gray. "Frontline Safety: Understanding the Workplace as a Site of Regulatory Engagement." Law & Policy 22(1): 179-196.

2017    Gray, Garry. "Academic Voice in Scholarly Writing." The Qualitative Report 39(1): 5-26.

2017    Gray, Garry. "The FBI on Corporate Crime", In Andre Spicer and Grietje Baars (Eds.), The Corporation: A Critical, Interdiscplinary Handbook. Pages 150-156. Cambridge University Press.

2016    Gray, Garry, and Michael Jones. "A Qualitative Narrative Policy Framework: Examining the Policy Narratives of US Campaign Finance Regulatory Reform." Public Policy and Administration 31(3): 193-220.

2015    Reme, Silje, E., Alberto Caban-Martinez, Justin Young, Anna Arlinghaus, and Garry Gray. "A Model for Development and Delivery of a Graduate Course in Transdiciplinary Research." Public Health Reports 130(5): 552-558.

2015    Gray, Garry. "A Sociological Perspective on Institutional Corruption", in Gerry Ferguson (Ed.) Global Corruption: Law, Theory and Practice. (pp. 71-74). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

2015    Singer, Sara, Jennifer Hayes, Garry Gray, and Mathew Kiang. "Making Time for Learning-oriented Leadership in Multidisciplinary Hospital Management Groups." Healthcare Management Review 40(4): 300-312.

2014    Gray, Garry, and Susan Silbey. “Governing Inside the Organization: Interpreting Regulation and Compliance.” American Journal of Sociology 120(1): 96-145.

2013    Gray, Garry. “Insider Accounts of Institutional Corruption: Examining the Social Organization of Unethical Behaviour.” British Journal of Criminology 53(4): 533-551.

2013    Gray, Garry. “The Ethics of Pharmaceutical Research Funding: A Social Organization Approach.” Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics 41(3): 629-634.  

2012    Robson, Linda, Sarah Macdonald, Garry Gray, Dwayne Van Eerd, and Phillip Bigelow. "A Descriptive Study of the OHS Management Auditing Methods used by Public Sector Organizations Conducting Audits of Workplaces: Implications for Audit Reliability and Validity." Safety Science 50(2): 181-189

2011    Gray, Garry, and Susan Silbey. 'The Other Side of the Compliance Relationship', in Christine Parker and Vibeke Nielson (Eds.), Explaining Compliance: Understanding and Explaining Organizational Responses to Regulation. Edward Edgar Publishing.

2011    Gray, Garry. “Constraints to Upholding Workplace Safety Laws and Regulations within Organizations.” Revue Droit et Société 77(1): 57-68. Special Issue on “How Organizations Accommodate the Law”.

2011    Singer, Sara, Jennifery Hayes, Jeffrey Cooper, Jay Vogt, Michael Sales, Angela Aristidou, Garry Gray, Mathew Kiang, and Gregg Meyer. "A Case for Safety Leadership Team Training of Hospital Managers." Health Care Management Review 36(2): 188-200

2010   Robson, Linda, Sarah Macdonald, Dwayne Van Eerd, Garry Gray, and Phillip Bigelow. "Something Might be Missing from OHS Audits: Findings from a Content Validity Analysis of Five Audit Instruments." Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
52(5): 536-543

2009    Turner, Nick, and Garry Gray. “Socially Constructing Safety.” Human Relations 62(9): 1259-1266 [Guest Editors of Special Issue].

2009    Gray, Garry. “The Responsibilization Strategy of Health and Safety: Neo-liberalism and the Reconfiguration of Individual Responsibility for Risk.” British Journal of Criminology 49(3): 326-342.

2009    Gray, Garry, and Victoria Bishop-Kenzia. “Organizational Self-Censorship: Corporate Sponsorship, Non-Profit Funding, and the Educational Experience’, Canadian Review of Sociology 46(2): 157-173.

2008    Gray, Garry. “Law and Video Games.” In Mark J.P. Wolf and Bernard Perron (Eds), The Video Game Theory Reader 2. Routledge, New York.

2007    Gray, Garry. “About Criminals: A View of the Offender’s World.” [Review of] Mark Pogrebin (Ed.). Criminal Justice Review 32(4): 446-448.

2007    Gray, Garry, and Tomas Nikolakos. “The Self-Regulation of Virtual Reality: Issues of Compliance and Enforcement in the Video Game Industry.” Canadian Journal of Law and Society 22(1): 93-108.

2006    Gray, Garry. “The Regulation of Corporate Violations: Punishment, Compliance, and the Blurring of Responsibility.” British Journal of Criminology 46(5): 875-892.

2006    Gray, Garry. “Ticketing Health and Safety Offenders: A Socio-Legal Examination of Ticketing in High Risk Firm Initiatives.” Policy and Practice in Health and Safety 4(2): 77-93. 

2006    Gray, Garry, and Abigail Salole. “The Local Culture of Punishment: An Ethnography of Criminal Justice Worker Discourse.” British Journal of Criminology 46(4): 661-679.

2002    Gray, Garry. “A Socio-legal Ethnography of the Right to Refuse Dangerous Work.” Studies in Law, Politics & Society 24: 133-169.