# PIMS lectures

Title: PIMS Network-Wide Colloquium - Understanding arithmetic and geometry through cutting and pasting

Speaker: Ravi Vakil, Stanford University

Date and time:
21 Sep 2023,
1:30pm -
2:30pm

Location: via Zoom registration required

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Euler’s famous formula tells us that (with appropriate caveats), a map on the sphere with f countries (faces), e borders (edges), and v border-ends (vertices) will satisfy v-e+f=2. And more generally, for a map on a surface with g holes, v-e+f=2-2g. Thus we can figure out the genus of a surface by cutting it into pieces (faces, edges, vertices), and just counting the pieces appropriately. This is an example of the topological maxim “think globally, act locally”. A starting point for modern algebraic geometry can be understood as the realization that when geometric objects are actually algebraic, then cutting and pasting tells you far more than it does in “usual” geometry. I will describe some easy-to-understand statements (with hard-to-understand proofs), as well as easy-to-understand conjectures (some with very clever counterexamples, by M. Larsen, V. Lunts, L. Borisov, and others). I may also discuss some joint work with Melanie Matchett Wood.

Speaker Biography: Ravi Vakil is a Professor of Mathematics and the Robert K. Packard University Fellow at Stanford University, and was the David Huntington Faculty Scholar. He received the Dean's Award for Distinguished Teaching, an American Mathematical Society Centennial Fellowship, a Frederick E. Terman fellowship, an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship, a National Science Foundation CAREER grant, the presidential award PECASE, and the Brown Faculty Fellowship. Vakil also received the Coxeter-James Prize from the Canadian Mathematical Society, and the AndrÉ-Aisenstadt Prize from the CRM in MontrÉal. He was the 2009 Earle Raymond Hedrick Lecturer at Mathfest, and a Mathematical Association of America's Pólya Lecturer 2012-2014. The article based on this lecture has won the Lester R. Ford Award in 2012 and the Chauvenet Prize in 2014. In 2013, he was a Simons Fellow in Mathematics.

Title: PIMS Distinguished Lecturer Seminar - Proving the Kahn-Kalai conjecture

Speaker: Jinyoung Park, New York University and IAS

Date and time:
05 Apr 2023,
3:30pm -
4:30pm

Location: Cornett B143

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For a finite set X, a family F of subsets of X is said to be increasing if any set A that contains B in F is also in F. The p-biased product measure of F increases as p increases from 0 to 1, and often exhibits a drastic change around a specific value, which is called a "threshold." Thresholds of increasing families have been of great historical interest and a central focus of the study of random discrete structures (e.g. random graphs and hypergraphs), with estimation of thresholds for specific properties the subject of some of the most challenging work in the area. In 2006, Jeff Kahn and Gil Kalai conjectured that a natural (and often easy to calculate) lower bound q(F) (which we refer to as the “expectation-threshold”) for the threshold is in fact never far from its actual value. A positive answer to this conjecture enables one to narrow down the location of thresholds for any increasing properties in a tiny window. In particular, this easily implies several previously very difficult results in probabilistic combinatorics such as thresholds for perfect hypergraph matchings (Johansson–Kahn–Vu) and bounded-degree spanning trees (Montgomery). I will present recent progress on this topic in the first talk, and discuss more details about proof techniques in the second talk. Based on joint work with Keith Frankston, Jeff Kahn, Bhargav Narayanan, and Huy Tuan Pham.

Title: Using data-driven stochastic lattice models to improve the representation of convection and clouds in Climate Models

Speaker: Kumar Roy, University of Victoria

Date and time:
05 Apr 2023,
9:30am -
10:30am

Location: via Zoom registration required

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ABSTRACT: Stochastic parameterizations (SMCM) are continuously providing promising simulations of unresolved atmospheric processes for global climate models (GCMs). One of the features of earlier SMCM is to mimic the life cycle of the three most common cloud types (congestus, deep, and stratiform) in tropical convective systems. In this present study, a new cloud type, namely shallow cloud, is included along with the existing three cloud types to make the model more realistic. Further, the cloud population statistics of four cloud types (shallow, congestus, deep, and stratiform) are taken from Indian (Mandhardev) radar observations. A Bayesian inference technique is used here to generate key time scale parameters required for the SMCM as SMCM is most sensitive to these time scale parameters as reported in many earlier studies. An attempt has been made here for better representing organized convection in GCMs, the SMCM parameterization is adopted in one of the state-of-art GCMs namely the Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) in lieu of the pre-existing simplified Arakawa–Schubert (default) cumulus scheme and has shown important improvements in key large-scale features of tropical convection such as intraseasonal wave disturbances, cloud statistics, and rainfall variability. This study also shows the need for further calibration the SMCM with rigorous observations for the betterment of the model’s performance in short term weather and climate scale predictions.

Kumar Roy is now working as a PIMS Postdoctoral Fellow with Prof. Boualem Khouider at Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Victoria. His current research topic is in the area of climate change modelling focusing on Stochastic models for clouds and tropical convection parameterization. He completed his PhD degree in Meteorology and Oceanography from Andhra University, India in March 2022 and his research has been carried out at Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, India. His research focuses on the development and application of sub-grid scale cloud models in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, as well as how these models affect the forecasting abilities of NWP models.

Title: PIMS Distinguished Lecturer Colloquium - Proving the Kahn-Kalai conjecture

Speaker: Jinyoung Park, New York University and IAS

Date and time:
04 Apr 2023,
12:00pm -
1:00pm

Location: Cornett B143

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For a finite set X, a family F of subsets of X is said to be increasing if any set A that contains B in F is also in F. The p-biased product measure of F increases as p increases from 0 to 1, and often exhibits a drastic change around a specific value, which is called a "threshold." Thresholds of increasing families have been of great historical interest and a central focus of the study of random discrete structures (e.g. random graphs and hypergraphs), with estimation of thresholds for specific properties the subject of some of the most challenging work in the area. In 2006, Jeff Kahn and Gil Kalai conjectured that a natural (and often easy to calculate) lower bound q(F) (which we refer to as the “expectation-threshold”) for the threshold is in fact never far from its actual value. A positive answer to this conjecture enables one to narrow down the location of thresholds for any increasing properties in a tiny window. In particular, this easily implies several previously very difficult results in probabilistic combinatorics such as thresholds for perfect hypergraph matchings (Johansson–Kahn–Vu) and bounded-degree spanning trees (Montgomery). I will present recent progress on this topic in the first talk, and discuss more details about proof techniques in the second talk. Based on joint work with Keith Frankston, Jeff Kahn, Bhargav Narayanan, and Huy Tuan Pham.