Margaret J. Penning

Margaret J. Penning
Position
Professor
Sociology
Credentials

PhD (Alberta, 1993)

Contact
Office: COR A305
Understanding Health, Health Care and Health Policy in Canada

Dr. Penning’s sociological research interests include aging, health and health care. Within these areas, her research tends to focus on issues of marriage and family, informal and formal care in relation to chronic illness and disability in middle and later life, mental health and well-being, and structural inequalities in health and health care.  She is currently the principal investigator of a program of research focusing on the implications of immigrant status, gender and race intersections for well-being in middle and later life.

CV

Interests

  • Aging
  • Health and health care
  • Aging and family life
  • Care giving and care receiving
  • Social networks and social support
  • Health care systems and health care reform

 

Selected publications

Books

Chappell NL and Penning MJ. (2009). Understanding Health, Health Care and Health Policy in Canada.  Toronto: Oxford University Press.

Journal articles (2000-present)

Wu, Z. and Penning, M.J. (In Press). Children and the mental health of older adults in China: What matters? Population Research and Policy Review.

Penning, M.J. and Wu, Z. (In Press). Caregiving and union instability in middle and later life. Journal of Marriage and Family. 

Lee, Y. and Penning, M.J. (2018). The Determinants of Informal, Formal, and Mixed In-Home Care in the Canadian Context. Journal of Aging and Health, Published online July 20, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264318789579

Wu, Z. and Penning, M.J. (2018). Union dissolution following marriage and cohabitation in middle and later life. Research on Aging, 40(4), 340-364. doi:10.1177/0164027517698024, First published online March 20, 2017. 

Penning, M.J., Cloutier, D.S., Nuernberger, K., MacDonald, S., and Taylor, D. (2018). Long-term care trajectories in Canadian context: Patterns and predictors of publicly-funded care. The Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 73(6), 1077-1087. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbw104. First published online: 24 August 2016.

Cloutier, D., Penning, M.J., Nuernberger, K., MacDonald, S. and Taylor, D. (2017). Long-term Care Service Trajectories and their Predictors for Persons Living with Dementia: Results from a Canadian Study. Journal of Aging and Health. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264317725618. First published online August 17, 2017.

Penning, M.J., Cloutier, D., Nuernberger, K., and Taylor, D. (2017). “When I said I wanted to die at home I didn’t mean a nursing home”: Care trajectories at the end of life. Innovation in Aging, 1(1), https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igx011

Saleh, N., Penning, M.J., Cloutier, D., Mallidou, A., Nuernberger, K., & Taylor, D. (2017). Social engagement and antipsychotic use in addressing the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in long-term care facilities. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research. 49(4), 144-152. https://doi.org/10.1177/0844562117726253. First published online October 4, 2017.

Hainstock, T., Cloutier, D., and Penning, M.J. (2017). From home to ‘home’: Mapping the caregiver journey in the transition from home care into residential care. Journal of Aging Studies, 43, 32-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2017.09.003. First published online: September 14, 2017.

Cloutier, D.S., and Penning, M.J. (2017). Janus at the crossroads: Perspectives on long-term care trajectories for older women with dementia in a Canadian Context. The Gerontologist, Special Issue: It’s Personal. 57(1), 68-81. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnw158. First published online: 16 November 2016.

Penning, M.J. and Zheng, C. (2016). Income inequities in health care utilization among adults aged 50 and over. Canadian Journal on Aging, 35(1), 55-69.

Penning, M.J. and Wu, Z. (2016). Caregiver stress and mental health: Impact of caregiving relationship and gender. The Gerontologist, 56(6), 1102-13. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnv038, Published online: 18 April 2015.

Wu, Z., Penning, M.J., Zeng, W., Li, S. & Chappell, N.L. (2016) Relocation and social support among older adults in rural China. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 71(6), 1108-19. Advance online publication: doi:10.1093/geronpub/gbu187

Penning, M.J. and Wu, Z. (2015). Caregiver stress and mental health: Impact of caregiving relationship and gender. The Gerontologist, doi: 10.1093/geront/gnv038, Published online: 18 April 2015.

Wu, Z. and Penning, M.J. (2015). Immigration and loneliness in later life. Ageing and Society, 35(1), 64-95. doi: 10.1017/S0144686X13000470, Published online: 07 August 2013

Wu, Z., Penning, M.J., Zeng, W., Li, S. & Chappell, N.L. (2014) Relocation and social support among older adults in rural China. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, Advance online publication: doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbu187

Penning, M.J. & Wu, Z. (2014) Marital status, childlessness, and social support among older Canadians. Canadian Journal on Aging. 33(4), 426-447. doi: 10.1017/S0714980814000385

Penning MJ, Liu G, and Pak, B. (2014). Measuring loneliness among middle-aged and older adults: The UCLA and de Jong Gierveld Loneliness Scales, Social Indicators Research. 118, 1147-1166. doi: 10.1007/s11205-013-0461-.

Penning, M.J. and Wu, Z. (2013). “Intermarriage and social support in middle and later life.” Journal of Marriage and Family, 75(4), 1044-1064. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12050

Votova, K., Blais, R., Penning, M.J., and MacLure, M.K. (2013). “Polypharmacy meets polyherbacy: Pharmaceutical, over-the-counter, and natural health product use among Canadian adults.” Canadian Journal of Public Health, 104(3), e222-e228.

Wu, Z., Schimmele, C., Penning, M.J., Zheng, C., and Noh, S. (2012) The effect of marital status on duration of treatment for mental illness. Canadian Studies in Population 39(1-2): 109-124.

Votova, K., Penning, M.J., Zheng, C., and Brackley, M.E. (2010). Trends and Predictors of Publicly Subsidized Chiropractic Services Use among Older British Columbians in the Context of Healthcare Reform, 1991-2000. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 16(9), 995-1001.

Schimmele, C.M., Wu, Z. and Penning, M.J. (2009). Gender and remission of mental illness. Canadian Journal of Public Health 100(5), 353-356.

Raina, P., Wolfson, C., Kirkland, S., Griffith, L., Oremus, M., Balion, C., Brazil, K., Hogan, D., Patterson, C., Payette, H., Penning, M., Riabowol, K., Shannon, H., Tuokko, H., Wister, A. (2009). The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), Canadian Journal on Aging, 28(3): 221-9.

Brackley ME and Penning MJ. (2009). "Home Care Utilization within the year of death: trends, predictors and changes in access equity during a period of health policy reform. Health and Social Care in the Community, 17(3): 283-294. http://www.med-worm.com/rss/search.php?qu=Health+and+Social+Care+in+the+Community&t=Health+and+Social+Care+in+the+Community&s=Search&f=source

Penning, M.J., Brackley, M.E., and Allan, D.E. (2006). Home care and health reform: Changes in home care utilization in one Canadian province, 1990-2000. The Gerontologist, 46(6): 744-58.

Brackley, M.E., Allan, D.A. and Penning, M.J. (2006). In the absence of cancer registry data, is it sensible to assess incidence using hospital separation records? International Journal for Equity in Health. 5:12(06 Oct 2006), http://www.equityhealthj.com/content/5/1/12

Cloutier-Fisher, D., Penning, M.J., Zheng, C., and Druyts, E. (2006). "The devil is in the details: Trends in avoidable hospitalizations by geography in British Columbia, 1990-2000." BMC Health Services Research, 6, 104. http://www.biomedcentral.com

Wu, Z, Penning, MJ, Schimmele, CM. (2005). Immigrant status and unmet health care needs. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 96(5): 369-73.

Brackley, M.E., and Penning, M.J. (2004). Residence, income and cancer hospitalisations in British Columbia during a decade of policy change. International Journal of Equity in Health 3:2

Wu Z., Penning M.J., Pollard M.S., and Hart R. (2003).  “In sickness and in health”: Does cohabitation count?  Journal of Family Issues, 24(6): 811-38.

McWilliam, C., Stewart, M., Brown, J.B., Feightner, J., Rosenberg, M., Gutman, G., Penning, M.J., Stewart, M., Tamblyn, R., & Morfitt, G. (2003). Promoting evidence-based health policy, programming and practice for seniors: Lessons from a national knowledge-transfer project. Canadian Journal on Aging, 22(4): 415-30.

Lin, G., Allan, D.E. and Penning, M.J. (2002). Examining distance effects on hospitalisations using GIS: A study of three health regions in British Columbia, Canada.  Environment and Planning, 34(11), 2037-53. 

Penning, M.J. (2002).  Hydra revisited: Substituting formal for self and informal in-home care among older adults with disabilities.  The Gerontologist, 42(1), 1-13.

Chappell, N.L. and Penning, M.J. (2001).  Sociology of aging: Issues for the millenium.  Canadian Journal on Aging, 20(Suppl. 1): 82-110.

Penning, M.J. and N.C. Keating (2000).  Self, informal and formal care: Partnerships in community-based and residential care settings. Canadian Journal on Aging, 19(Suppl.1): 75-100.

Journal articles (pre-2000)

Chappell, N.L., Havens, B, Penning, M.J., Everitt, J., Annis, R., Klein, H and Kyle, B (1998).  Evaluating support services to seniors and partnering in research.  Home Care Provider, 3(1), 30-7.

Penning, M.J. (1998).  In the middle: Parental caregiving in the context of other roles.  Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 53B(4):S188-97.

Wu, Z. and Penning, M.J. (1997).  Marital instability after midlife.  Journal of Family Issues, 18(5):459-478.

Keating, N.C., Fast, J.E., Connidis, I.A. and Penning, M.J. and Keefe J. (1997).  Bridging policy and research on eldercare.  Canadian Journal on Aging/Canadian Journal of Public Policy, Special Joint Issue, 22-41.

Chappell, N.L. and Penning, M.J. (1996).  Behavioural problems and distress among  caregivers of people with dementia.  Ageing and Society, 16(1), 57-73.

Chappell, N.L. and Penning, M.J. (1996). Employer based health insurance and seniors: The case of Bermuda.  The Gerontologist, 36(1), 63-9.

Penning, M.J. (1995).  Health, social support and the utilization of health services among older adults.  Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 50B(5):S330-S339.

Penning, M.J. (1995). Cognitive impairment, caregiver burden, and the utilization of formal services.  Journal of Aging and Health, 7(2):233-253.

Penning, M.J. and Strain, L.A. (1994).  Gender differences in disability, assistance, and well-being in later life.  Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 49(4):S202-S208.

Strain, LA, Chappell, NL and Penning (1993).  The need for social science research on technology and aging.  Technology and Disability, 2(1):56-65.

Penning, M.J. (1992).  Reaching the hard-to-reach: Homebound learning opportunities.  The Gerontologist, 32(5):704-707.  Reprinted in M. Novak (Ed.) Aging and Society: A Canadian Reader. Toronto: Nelson Canada, pp.285-291.

Penning, M.J. and Chappell, N.L. (1990).  Self care in relation to informal and formal care.  Ageing and Society, 10(1):41-59.

Penning, M.J. (1990). Receipt of assistance by elderly people: Hierarchical selection and task specificity.  The Gerontologist, 30(2):220-227.

Penning, M.J. and Chappell, N.L. (1987).  Ethnicity and informal supports among older adults.  Journal of Aging Studies, 1(2), 145-160.

Penning, M.J. and Chappell, N.L. (1983).  Multiple jeopardy: Age, sex, and ethnic  Variations.  Canadian Ethnic Studies, xv (3):81-105.

Penning, M.J. and Barnes, G.E. (1982).  Adolescent marijuana use: A review.  International Journal of the Addictions, 17(5):749-791.

Chappell, N.L. and Penning, M.J. (1981).  Mental health status: A comparison of different socio-economic environments for the elderly.  Essence: Issues in the Study of Ageing, Dying and Death, 5(2), 169-182.

Krishnan, P., Penning, M.J. and Kurian, L.  (1981). Working life tables for females in Canada, 1971. Population et Famille, 52, 153-166. 

Chappell, N.L. and Penning, M.J. (1979).  The trend away from institutionalization: Humanism or economic efficiency?  Research on Aging, 1(3), 361-387. 

Book chapters (2000-present)

Chappell, N.L. and Penning, M.J. (2018). Health declines in old age, or does it? Pp. 237-42 in P. Albanese, L. Tepperman & E. Alexander (Eds.), Reading Sociology: Canadian Perspectives, 3rd ed.. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.

Penning, M.J. and Chappell, N.L. (2016). Health and Aging (revised chapter). In R.J. Brym (Ed.), New Sociology: Sociology for the 21st Century (8th edition). Toronto, ON: Nelson.

Cloutier, D., Penning, M.J., Taylor, D., Nuernberger, K., Funk, L., & Hainstock, T. (2015). Chapter 6: Long-term Care in British Columbia: Exploring Trends in Service Use and Service Users by Geography. In Mark Skinner & Neil Hanlon (Eds.), Growing Old in Resource Communities: New Frontiers of Rural Ageing. Routledge.

Chappell, N.L. and Penning M.J. (2014). Health and Aging (revised chapter).  In RJ Brym (Ed.), New Society: Sociology for the 21st Century (7th edition).  Toronto:Nelson.

Chappell, N.L. and Penning M.J. (2010). Health and Aging.  In RJ Brym (Ed.), New Society: Sociology for the 21st Century (6th edition).  Toronto: Nelson.

Penning, M.J., Brackley, M.E., Zheng, C., and Allan, D.E. 2009. Geography, home care, and health reform in British Columbia, 1991-2000. In D. Cloutier-Fisher, L. Foster and D. Hultsch (Eds.), Health and Aging in British Columbia: Vulnerability and Resilience. Canadian Western Geographical Series, Victoria: Western Geographical Press.

Penning, M.J. and Votova, K.  (2008). Aging, health and health care: From hospital and residential care to home and community care.  In S. Bolaria and HD Dickinson (Eds.), Health, Illness and Health Care in Canada, 4th ed. Toronto: Harcourt.

Chappell, N.L. and Penning M.J. (2007). Health and Aging.  In RJ Brym (Ed.), New Society: Sociology for the 21st Century (5th edition).  Toronto: Nelson. (Pp. 440-462).

Chappell, N.L. and Penning M.J. (2005). Family caregivers: Increasing demands in the context of 21st century globalization? In Johnson ML et al. (Eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Age and Ageing.  Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (Pp. 455-462).

Penning, M.J. (2001). Health of the elderly: From institutional care to home and community care.  In B.S. Bolaria and H. Dickinson (eds.), Health, Illness and Health Care in Canada. (3rd ed.)  Toronto: Harcourt Brace and Company, Pp. 292-308.

Book Chapters (pre-2000)

Chappell, N.L., Penning, M.J., and Behie, G. (1996). Primary and secondary caregivers: Different experiences, different meanings?  Pp.161-175 in V. Minichiello, N.L. Chappell, H. Kendig, and A. Walker (Eds.) Sociology of Aging: International Perspectives.  Melbourne, Australia: International Sociological Association, Research Committee on Aging.

Penning, M.J. and Chappell, N.L. (1993).  Health promotion and disadvantaged elderly: Rural-urban differences.  In C.N. Bull (Ed.), Aging in Rural America.  Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Pp.117-133.

Penning, MJ and Chappell, N.L. (1993).  Chapter 18: Age-related differences.  In T. Stephens and D. Fowler Graham (eds.), Canada's Health Promotion Survey, 1990: Technical Report.  Ottawa: Minister of Supply and Services Canada.

Penning, MJ and Barnes, G.E. (1980).  Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Review.  Pp.269-280 in Northern Sniff: The Epidemiology of Drug Use among Indian, White and Metis Adolescents. Ottawa: Health Promotion Branch, Health and Welfare Canada.

Penning, M.J. and Chappell, N.L. (1980).  A reformulation of basic assumptions about institutions for the elderly.  In V.W. Marshall (Ed.) Aging in Canada: Social Perspectives.  Toronto, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside, pp.269-280.

Reports (2000-present)

Chappell, NL and Penning, MJ (2012). Health Inequalities in Later Life, Differences by Age/Stage.  Report prepared for the Public Health Agency of Canada, March 2012. 79pp.

Penning MJ and Chappell, NL (2010).  Health inequalities among adults in later life: Review of issues, promising practices and upstream health interventions in responding to aging and older people in Canada.  Report prepared for the Public Health Agency of Canada, July 2010.

Penning, M.J., Allan, D.E., Roos, L.L., Chappell, N.L., Roos, N.P. and Lin, G. (2002).  Health care restructuring and community-based care: Three regions in British Columbia. Centre on Aging, University of Victoria.

McCarthy, S., Allan, D.E., Penning, M.J., Roos, L.L. and Walld, R. (2002).  Regionalization and utilization of health care services in British Columbia and Manitoba: A Comparison, 1990-1999.

Penning, M.J. and Allan, D.E. (2000).  Health Care Restructuring and Community-based Care: A First Look at Three Regions in British Columbia.  Year 1 Report submitted to the Capital Health Region, Okanagan/Similkameen Health Region and Upper Island/Central Coast Health Region, Province of British Columbia.

Research grants (2000-present)

Penning, M.J., Wu, Z., & Chappell, N.L. Immigrant status, gender and race intersections: Implications for well-being in middle and later life. SSHRC, Insight Grants Program (#435-2018-0262), 2018-21 ($156,607)

Lee, Y., Bierman, A. & Penning, M.J. Complexity of Caregiving Experiences and Outcomes: Understanding the Role of Social Statuses and Social Resources. SSHRC, Insight Development Grants Program, 2018-20 ($65,410) 

Wu, Z., Chappell, N.L. and Penning, M.J. Grey divorce in Canada, A national portrait. SSHRC Insight Grants, 2017-20. ($184,600)

Penning, M.J. "When I said I wanted to die at home, I didn't mean a nursing home": Investigating health care trajectories among nursing home residents prior to death. University of Victoria Internal Research/Creative Project Grant (IRCPG), 2016-17 ($6,990).

Wu, Z., Chappell, N.L., Hou, F., & Penning, M.J. Cohabitation among Canadians in Mid and Later Life: A National Portrait, 1981-2011, SSHRC, 2014-2017 ($164,000).

Penning, M.J., Cloutier-Fisher, D., et al. Transitions and Trajectories in Late Life Care: Patterns and Predictors. CIHR Knowledge Translation Branch and CIHR Institute of Aging through CIHR Partnerships for Health System Improvement Grant (with matching funds provided through the MSFHR), 2012-2015 ($333,225).

Penning M.J. Canadian Journal on Aging.  SSHRC Aid to Scholarly Journals Program, 2011-14 ($90,000).

Raina P., Kirkland S., Wolfson C, Penning MJ, Wister A, Cynader M, Kobor MS, Chappell NL, Tuokko H, Hoga D, Hepple R, Menec V, Chambers L, Jutai J, Mugford G, Parfrey P, Hatfield E, Stewart H, Cook R, Bergman H, Patterson C et al. The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging: Understanding the complexity of aging health through Interdisciplinary research. Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI), 2009-14 ($10,215,493 - $1.14 million to UVic) 

Raina P., Kirkland S., Wolfson C, Penning MJ, Wister A, Cynader M, Chappell NL, Tuokko H, Payette, H, Hogan D, Hepple R, Menec V, Ballion, Chambers L, Mugford G, and Patterson C. Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging: Phase III: Initial Tracking and Comprehensive Cohorts.  Co-investigator and Social Theme Leader, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), 2008-13 ($23.5M).

Penning MJ, Brackley ME, Lesperance M. Population-based longitudinal study of trajectories & predictors of health care utilization amongst the 50+ BC population, 1986-2006. Canadian Institutes of Health Research, 2009-2010 ($100,000).

Raina P., Kirkland S., Wolfson C, Penning MJ, Wister A, Cynader M, Kobor MS, Chappell NL, Tuokko H, Hoga D, Hepple R, Menec V, Chambers L, Jutai J, Mugford G, Parfrey P, Hatfield E, Stewart H, Cook R, Bergman H, Patterson C et al. Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging: Developmental Activities, Phase II.  Co-investigator and Social Theme Leader, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), 2008-. ($3.5M).

Raina P, Wolfson C, Kirkland S, Payette H, Penning M, Bergman H, Wister A, Corriveau H, Tuokko H, Oremus M, Santaguida P, Papaioannou A, Shannon H, Postuma R, Kopec J, Dionne I, Menec V, Fulop, T, Chambers L, Balion C, Mugford G, Chappell NL.  CIHR TEAM in Mobility in Aging, Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) Mobility Initiative (CMI), Emerging Team Grant – Alliances in Mobility in Aging, $1,500,000 (2008-2014).

Penning MJ, Tuokko H, Liu G, Funk L, Crossley M, Simard M, Chou B. CLSA-BCNAR Joint Psychology and Social Theme Working Group Pilot Study Proposal - Taking Part: Social Participation and Coping in Later Life.  BC Network on Aging with funding from MSFHR, 2007-08 ($16,100).

Raina, Kirkland, S., P. Wolfson, C., Penning, M.J.  et al., CLSA (Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging): Developmental Activities, Phase II.  Co-investigator and Social Theme Leader, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), 2006-08. ($2.1M - $75,000 to Victoria).

Penning MJ, Brackley ME, Lesperance M.  Health system change and cancer service utilization among older adults in British Columbia, 1986-2003.  Canadian Institutes of Health Research, 2006-2009 ($315,912). 

Kirkland, S., Raina, P. Wolfson, C., Penning, M.J.  et al., CLSA (Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging): Developmental Activities, Phase I.  Co-investigator and Social Theme Leader, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), 2004-05. ($1,744,000).

Bergman H, Wolfson K,.. Penning, MJ et al.  Canadian Initiative on Frailty.  Max Bell Foundation, 2003-06 [$8000 to Victoria].

Hultsch D, Chappell NL, Penning MJ et al.  Centre on Aging - Infrastructure Support Program.  Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (MSFHR), 2003-06. ($500,000)

Kirkland, S., Raina, P. Wolfson, C., Penning, M.J.  et al.  Protocol Development for the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA), Co-investigator and Social Theme Leader, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), 2002-04 ($397,348; $5000 to Victoria).

Penning, M.J., Chappell, N.L., Wu, Z., Gartrell, J.W., Brackley, M. and Cloutier-Fisher, D. Health care Restructuring: Impact on vulnerable older adults, Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), 2002-05 ($320,355).