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Maria Carmen Galang

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Associate Professor

Office: BEC 218 250-721-6111
BSc in Psychology, University of the Philippines; Master in Industrial Relations, University of the Philippines; PhD in Labour and Industrial Relations, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Area of expertise:
Cross cultural management, human resource management


Dr. Carmen Galang joined the Gustavson School of Business at UVic in 1994 where she now serves as the academic director of the Sardul S. Gill Graduate School PhD program and teaches human resource management to undergraduate students, and cross-cultural management to PhD students.

Carmen researches in the area of strategic human resource management (HRM) and conducts comparative studies of HRM practices in different counties. She strives to learn whether these practices are transferrable to different countries with a different social, legal or economic context, and whether they have the same effect on organizations and their employees.

Her research takes a global perspective with a focus on countries in the Asia Pacific. Carmen’s research has been published in numerous journals including the International Journal of Human Resource Management, International Journal of Business and Management and the International Journal of Organizational Behavior. She hopes her research will assist firms understand the norms and expectations that bicultural or multicultural individuals bring to their role as employees, with a view to better integration and utilization of their knowledge and skills.

Before undertaking a PhD and joining UVic, Carmen worked in the Philippines in the area of human resource management for different industries.


Courses taught

  • Seminar in Cross-cultural Management (PhD)
  • Comparative HR Management (PhD)
  • Cross-National Management (BCom)
  • International Environment of Business (BCom)

Selected publications

Journal publications

Galang, M. C., & Osman, I. (2016). HR managers in five countries: What do they do and why does it matter? The International Journal of Human Resource Management27(13), 1341–1372.

Galang, M.C. & Osman, I. (2013). The antecedents and consequences of strategic HRM in Malaysian and Philippine SMEs. In C. Machado & P. Melo, P. (Eds.), Effective human resources management in small and medium enterprises: Global perspectives (1-27). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Teo, S., LeClerc, M. & Galang, M.C. (2011). Human capital enhancing HRM systems and frontline employees in Australian manufacturing SMEs. International Journal of Human Resource Management22(12), 522-2538.

Osman, I., Ho, T.C.F. & Galang, M.C. (2011). The relationship between human resource practices and firm performance: an empirical assessment of firms in Malaysia. Business Strategy Series12(1):41-48.

Osman, I., Ho, T.C.F. & Galang, M.C. (2011). Are human resource departments really important?  An empirical study on Malaysian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the service sector.  International Journal of Business and Management, 6(2), 147-153.

Galang, M.C. & Tiong-Aquino, S. (2009). The Philippines. In L.P. Dana, M. Han, V. Ratten, & Welpe, I.M. (Eds.), Handbook of research on Asian entrepreneurship (248-256). Cheltenham UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Galang, M.C. (2008).  Best practices in HRM: Convergence in beliefs across nine countries.  International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 13(1), 1-15.

Galang, M.C. (2004). The transferability question: Comparing HRM practices in the Philippines with the U.S. and Canada. The International Journal of Human Resources Management15(7), 1207-1233.

Bowen, D., Galang, M.C. & Pillai, R. (2002). The role of human resource management: An exploratory study of cross-country variance. Human Resource Management41(1), 103-122. Reprinted in (2002). Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources40(1), 123-145.


Galang, M.C. (2002). The HR department: Its role in firm competitiveness. In G.R. Ferris, M.R. Buckley & D.B. Fedor (Eds.), Human resources management: Perspectives, context, functions, and outcomes (4th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Galang, M.C., Elsik, W. & Russ, G.S. (1999). Legitimacy in human resource management. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 17, 41-79.

Galang, M.C. & Ferris, G.R. (1997). Human resources department power and influence through symbolic action. Human Relations, 50(11), 1403-1426. Reprinted in (2003). L. Porter, H. Angle & R. Allen (Eds.), Organizational Influence Processes (2nd ed.). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Awards & grants


  • Social Science & Humanities Research Council of Canada Standard Research Grant (2005-2008). $77,267. Human resources for firm competitive advantage: Cross-cultural comparisons, Principal Investigator with Stephen Teo, University of Technology, Sydney and Irene Chow, Chinese University of Hong Kong.
  • VIII International Workshop on HRM, Funded by University of Victoria, Office of Research Services (May 12, 2011 - May 13, 2011), awarded April 6, 2011 ($1,250.00), Completed, Spring 2011, PI Carmen Galang