Assessment instruments

These assessment tools were developed with researchers at the Institute on Aging & Lifelong Health:

An Assessment Guide to Geriatric Neuropsychology

(Tuokko & Hadjistavropoulos, 1998)

The neuropsychological assessment of elderly persons involves not only the performance-based measurement of various capacities, but also heavy reliance on reports from caregivers (both formal and informal) about the day-to-day functioning of the affected person. It also raises important yet often neglected ethical concerns. The authors discuss all the measures that detect and discriminate among cognitive disorders of elderly persons, including special measures relevant to caregiver reports, and provide useful tables to assist in differential diagnosis. They also reflect the ethical issues that often confront the assessor of an elderly individual: informed consent, self-determination, and appropriate feedback.

Copies of the Assessment Guide can be ordered online.

The Clock Test

(Tuokko, Hadjistavropoulos, Miller, Horton, & Beattie, 1995), published by Multi-Health Systems, Inc.

The Clock Test is a clinical and research instrument designed to assess visuo-spatial construction, visual perception and abstract conceptualization. This measure consists of three subtests: Clock Drawing, Clock Setting, and Clock Reading. A scoring system for these tasks is presented which offers both an overall quantifiable score and, for Clock Drawing, a qualitative analysis of specific error types. This approach to the evaluation of an individual's capability to perform various time-related tasks (i.e., drawing, setting and reading a clock) allows for examination of the interrelationships between these tasks and the specification of the types of problems, that may be exhibited. The Clock Test, therefore, represents a standardized assessment for the presence of cognitive impairment by using clock drawing, clock setting and clock reading tasks.

You can order a copy of The Clock Test online.


  • Tuokko, H., & O'Connell, M. (2006). A review of quantified approaches to the qualitative assessment of clock drawing. In A. Poreh (Ed.), The Quantified Process Approach to Neuropsychological Assessment. New York: Taylor & Francis.
  • Tuokko, H., Hadjistavropoulos, T., Rae, S., & O'Rourke, N. (2000). A comparison of alternative approaches to the scoring of clock drawing. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 15, 137-148.
  • O'Rourke, N., Tuokko, H., Hayden, S., & Beattie, B.L. (1997). Early identification of dementia: Predictive validity of the Clock Test. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 12,257-267.
  • Tuokko, H., Hadjistavropoulos, T., Miller, J. A., & Beattie, B.L. (1992). The Clock Test: A Sensitive Measure to Differentiate Normal Elderly from those with Alzheimer Disease.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40, 579-584.

Demographic Correction System (Normative Data)

Tuokko, H. & Woodward, T. S. (1996). Development and validation of a demographic correction system for neuropsychological measures used in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 18(4), 479-616.

This volume of the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology presents Tuokko & Woodward's demographic correction system on measures appropriate for use with elderly people. In the development and validation of the norms, the authors have adjusted for demographic variables that are known to influence neuropsychological test performance: age, education, and gender. The data used in developing and validating the demographic correction system was derived from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Requests for copies can be directed to .

The calculation tool is free and online.

Measure of Awareness of Financial Skills (MAFS)

The Measure of Awareness of Financial Skills (MASF) is a tool developed for the standardized assessment of a person's level of awareness of financial abilities, and where and when awareness deficits occur. The test is intended for use as a clinical and research instrument, aiding in the assessment of competence within the financial domain. The MAFS, developed by the Competency Work Group here at the Centre on Aging, is now available for purchase from the .

The measure consists of three forms: a client questionnaire, an informant questionnaire and a performance measure. A client's degree of unawareness is determined by calculating the difference between the client's self-ratings and the ratings provided by his or her caregiver on each of the 34 items included in the MAFS. Evidence exists in support of the reliability and validity of the MAFS in assessing awareness of financial skills.

For more information or to order the MAFS, visit the Psychology Clinic.


  • Van Wielingen, L. E., Tuokko, H. A., Cramer, K., Mateer, C. A., & Hultsch, D. F. (2004). Awareness of Financial Skills in Dementia. Aging and Mental Health, 8(4), 374-380.
  • Cramer, K., Tuokko, H., Mateer, C., & Hultsch, D. (2004). Measuring awareness of financial skills: Reliability and validity of a new measure. Aging and Mental Health, 8(2), 161-171.