Browse publications by specilization category: International Business
Ault, J.K., (2016). An Institutional Perspective on The Social Outcome of Entrepreneurship: Commercial Microfinance and Inclusive Markets. Journal of International Business Studies. 47 (8): 951-967.
Baggs, J., Beaulieu E., Fung, L., Lapham B. (2016). Firm Dynamics in Retail Trade: The Response of Canadian Retailers to Exchange Rate Shocks. Review of International Economics. 24(3):635-666.
Hrenyk, J., Szymanski, M., Kar, A., & Fitzsimmons, S. (2016). Understanding Multicultural Individuals as Ethical Global Leaders, in Joyce S. Osland , Ming Li , Mark E. Mendenhall (ed.) Advances in Global Leadership (Advances in Global Leadership, Volume 9) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 57-78.
*Fitzsimmons, S., Liao, Y. & Thomas, D. (Forthcoming). From Crossing Cultures to Straddling Them: An empirical examination of outcomes for multicultural employees. Journal of International Business Studies.
Galang, MC & Osman, I. (2016) HR managers in five countries: what do they do and why does it matter?. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 27(13): 1341-1372.
*Gao, H., Zhang, Y. Mittal, V. (Forthcoming). How does Local-Global Identity Affect Price Sensitivity?. Journal of Marketing.
Woodard, M, Miller, J, Miller, D, Silvernail, K., Guo, C., Nair, S., Aydin, M, Lemos, A., Donnelly, P, Kumpikaite-Valiuniene, V, Marx, R., Peters, L. (2016). A cross-cultural examination of preferences for work attributes. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 31(3): 702-719.
*Nair, S., Cohen, D.G. & Meyer, C. (Forthcoming). The Role of Professional Service Providers During the Initial Stages of International Entrepreneurship: A Neo-Institutionalist View. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business.
Shi, L., Gao, T. (2016). Performance Effects of Global Account Coordination Mechamisms: An Integrative Study of Boundary Conditions. Journal of International Marketing. 24(2), 1-21.
Brannen, MY. (2015). Language: A JIBS Collection - Introduction. Journal of International Business Studies. Online.
Chittoor, R., Aulakh, P. (2015). Organizational landscape in India: Historical development, multiplicity of forms and implications for practice and research. Long Range Planning, special issue on Organizational Landscape in India, 48(5), 291-300.
Chittoor, R., Kale, P., & Puranam, P. (2015). Business groups in developing capital markets: Towards a complementarity perspective. Strategic Management Journal, 36(9), 1277-1296.
Chen, G., Chittoor, R., & Vissa, B. (2015). Modernizing without westernizing: Social structure and economic action in the Indian financial sector. Academy of Management Journal, 58(2), 511-537.
Chittoor, R., Aulakh, P., & Ray, S. (2015). Accumulative and assimilative learning, institutional infrastructure and innovation orientation of developing economy firms. Global Strategy Journal, special issue on Mutual Impact of Global Strategy and Organizational Learning, 5(2), 133-153.
Chittoor, R., Aulakh, P., & Ray, S. (2015). What drives overseas acquisitions by Indian firms? A behavioral risk-taking perspective. Management International Review, 55, 255-275.
Dastmalchian, A., McNeil, N., Blyton, P., Bacon, N., Blunsdon, B., Kabasakal, H., Steinke, C., and Varnali, R., (2015) Organisational Climate and Human Resources: Exploring a new construct in cross-national context. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 53(4):397-414.
Steinke, C., Dastmalchian, A. and Baniasadi, Y. (2015). Exploring Aspects of Workplace Climates in Canada: Implications for the Human Resources of Health Care. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 53(4): 415-431.
Easter, S. & Conway Dato-on, M. (2015). Bridging ties across contexts to scale social value: The case of a Vietnamese social enterprise. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship. 6(3): 320-351.
Chung, H, Majerbi, B., & Rizeanu, S. (2015). Exchange risk premia and firm characteristics. Emerging Markets Review. 22 (March), 96-125.
Meyer, C.R., Skaggs, B.C., Nair, S., & Cohen, D.G. (2015). Customer interaction uncertainty, knowledge, and service firm internationalization. Journal of International Management. 21(3), 249-259.
Bennett, N., Dearden, P., & Peredo, A. (2015). Vulnerability to multiple stressors in coastal communities: A study of the Andaman Coast of Thailand. Climate and Development. 7(2),124-141.
El Ghoul, S., Guedhami, O., Pittman, J., Rizeanu, S. (2015). Cross-Country Evidence on the Importance of Auditor Choice to Corporate Debt Maturity. Contemporary Accounting Research. 33(2), 718-751.
Shen Y. et al., (2015). Career success across eleven countries: Implications for international human resource management. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 26(13),1753-1778.
Shen Y. & Mao, J. (2015). Cultural identity changes in expatriates: A social network perspective. Human Relations, 1533-1556.
Ault, J. K., & Spicer, A. (2014). The institutional context of poverty: State fragility and the global growth of commercial microfinance, Strategic Management Journal. 35(12):1818-1838.
Brannen, M.Y., Piekkari, R. & Tietze, S. (2014). The multifaceted role of language in international business. Introduction to the special issue of the Journal of International Business Studies, 45, 495-507.
Brannen, M.Y. & Lee, F. (2014). How can the organizational literature inform psychology research on biculturalism. In Benet-Martinez, V. & Hong, Y.Y. (Eds.), The Handbook of Multicultural Identity: Basic and Applied Psychological Perspectives (417-438). UK: Oxford University Press.
Hanek, K.J., Lee, F. & Brannen, M.Y. (2014). Individual differences among global/multicultural individuals: Cultural experiences, identity, and adaptation. International Studies in Management and Organization.2013 Special Issue: Advancing the field: New directions for global mobility. Y.M. McNulty & H. Decieri (Eds.), 44 (2), 76-90.
Ralston, D.A., Egri, C. P., Furrer, O., Kuo, M-H., Li, J., Wangenheim, F., Danis, W.M., Dharmasiri, A.S., & Weber, M. (2014). Societal-level versus individual-level predictions of ethical behavior: A 48-society study of collectivism and individualism.Journal of Business Ethics, 122 (283-306).
Imer, P., Kabasakal, H., & Dastmalchian, A. (2014). Personality and contextual antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior: A study of two occupational groups. Journal of Management and Organization.20(4): 441-462.
Baniasadi, H. & Dastmalchian, A. (2014). The differentiating characteristics of societal cultures: An examination of societal values, practices, and potential for change. Journal of Comparative International Management. 17(1): 1-13.
Fitzsimmons, S. (2014). Us, them, and others in management eesearch. Academy of Management Review, 39(3), 384-386.
Leung, A., Zietsma, C., & Peredo, A.M. (2014). Emergent identity work and institutional change: The ‘quiet’ revolution of Japanese middle-class housewives. Organizational Studies. 35(3), 423-450.
Majerbi, B. & Rachdi, H. (2014). Systemic Banking Crises, Financial Liberalization and Governance. Multinational Finance Journal. 18(3/4): 281-336.
Cuervo-Cazurra, A., Caligiuri, P., Andersson, U. & Brannen, M.Y. (2013). How to write articles that are relevant to practice. Journal of International Business Studies, 44 (4) 285-289.
Fitzsimmons, S. R., Lee, Y-t, Brannen, M.Y. (2013). Demystifying the myth about marginals: implications for global leadership. European Journal of International Management, 7 (5) 587-603.
Stahl, G. K., Brannen, M.Y. (2013). Building cross-cultural leadership competence: An interview, with Carlos Ghosn. Academy of Management Learning and Education Journal, 12 (3) 494-502.
Jack, G., Zhu, Y., Barney, J., Brannen, M.Y., Prichard, C., Singh, K., & Whetten, D. (2013). Refining, reinforcing and reimagining universal and indigenous theory development in international management (with Jay Barney, Gavin Jack, Craig Pritchard, Kulwant Sinch, David Whetten, and Yunxia Zhu) in Journal of Management Inquiry, 22 ( 2) 148-164.
Huenemann, R. (2013). Economic Reforms, 1978-Present. Oxford Bibliographies in Chinese Studies.
Nair, S., Skaggs, B.. (2012). Performance implications of cross-listing for emerging vs. developed market firms: an institutional legitimacy approach. International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets, 4(3), 223-240.
Chaieb, I., Errunza, V., & Majerbi, B. (2013). Do emerging markets provide currency diversification benefits. International Journal of Banking, Accounting and Finance. 5(1/2), 102-120.
Rizeanu, S., Zhang, H. (2013). Exchange Rates and Portfolio Rebalancing: Evidence from Emerging Economies. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 5 (2) 15-27.
Cotton, R.D. & Shen, Y., (2013). The company you keep: The relational models and support expectations of key developer relationships. Career Development International, Vol. 18 Iss: 4, pp.328 - 356.
Doukas, J., & Zhang, H. (2013). The performance of NDF carry trades. Journal of International Money and Finance, 36, 172–190.
Brannen, M.Y., Fitzsimmons, S.Lee, Y-t. (2012). Why some marginals excel as global leaders. European Business Review, 7-10
Brannen, M.Y., & Voisey, C. (2012). Global comparative strategy and learning from the field: Towards a model of blobal strategy formulation as grounded theory. Global Strategy Journal, 2(1), 51-71.
Kiss, A., Danis, W.M. & Cavusgil, S.T. (2012). International entrepreneurship research in emerging economies: A critical review and research agenda. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(2): 266-290.
Danis, W.M. & Shipilov, A.V. (2012). Knowledge acquisition strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises: Evidence from Hungary and Ukraine. Thunderbird International Business Review, 54(2) 327-345.
Elg, U., Deligonul, S., Ghauri, P.N., Danis, W.M. & Tarnovskaya, V. (2012). Market-driving strategy implementation through global supplier relationships. Industrial Marketing Management, 41(6), 919-928.
Kabasakal, H., Dastmalchian, A., Karacay, G. & Bayraktar, S. (2012). Leadership and culture in the MENA Region: An analysis of the globe project. Journal of World Business, 47(4). 519-529.
Dorfman, P., Javidan, M., Hanges, P., Dastmalchian, A. & House, R. (2012). GLOBE: A twenty year journey into the fascinating world of culture and leadership. Journal of World Business, 47(4). 504-518.
Nair, S. & Skaggs, B.C. (2012). Performance implications of cross-listing for emerging vs. developed market firms: An institutional legitimacy approach. International Journal of Business and Emerging Markets, 4(3), 223-240.
Gao, T. & Shi, L.H. (2012). How do multinational suppliers formulate mechanisms of global account coordination? An intergrative framework and empirical study. Journal of International Marketing, 19(4), 61-87.
Fung, L., Baggs, J., & Beaulieu, E. (2011). Plant scale and exchange rate-induced productivity growth. Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 20(4), 1197-1230.
Kabasakal, H., Dastmalchian, A. & Imer, P. (2011). Organizational citizenship behaviour: A study of young executives in Canada, Iran, and Turkey. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(13), 2703-2729.
Osman, I., Ho, T.C.F. & Galang, M.C. (2011). The relationship between human resource practices and firm performance: an empirical assessment of firms in Malaysia. Business Strategy Series, 12(1):41-48.
Teo, S., LeClerc, M. & Galang, M.C. (2011). Human capital enhancing HRM systems and frontline employees in Australian manufacturing SMEs. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(12): 2522-2538.
Ng, I. & Dastmalchian A. (2011). Perceived training benefits and training bundles: A Canadian study. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(4), 829-842.
Wu, Fang & Shi, L.H. (2011). Dealing with market dynamism: The role of reconfiguration in global account management. Management International Review, 51(5), 635-663.
Attig, N., El Ghoul, S., Guedhami, O. & Rizeanu, S. (2011). The governance role of multiple large shareholders. Journal of Management and Governance. 1-33.
Meyer, C.R., Cohen, D.G. & Nair, S. (2011). Agency, embeddedness and the financial crisis. Academy of Business Journal, 1, 80-100.
Shen, Y. & Kram, K. E. (2011). Expatriates’ developmental networks: Network diversity, base, and support functions. Career Development International. 16(6), 528-552.
Dewan, S., Ganley, D., & Kraemer, K. (2010). The co-diffusion of successive information technologies: Implications for the global digital divide. Information Systems Research, 21(4), 925-940.
Jung, J., Beamish, P. & Goerzen, A. (2010). Dynamics of experience, environment and MNE ownership strategy. Management International Review, 50(3), 267-296.
Goerzen, A., Sapp, S. & Delios, A. (2010). Investor response to environmental risk in foreign direct investment. Management International Review, 50(6), 683-708.
Schilke, O. & Goerzen, A. (2010). Alliance management capability and alliance portfolio performance: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Management, 36(5), 1192-1219.
Shi, L.H., White, C., Zou, S., & Cavusgil, T. (2010). Global account management strategies: Drivers and outcomes. Journal of International Business Studies, 41, 620-638.
Valente, M. (2010). Private enterprise and public responsibility in developing countries. California Management Review, 52(3), 52-78.
Valente, M. (2010). Public and private partnerships for sustainable development: A process framework. Journal of African Business, 11(1), 49-69.
Baggs, J., Beaulieu, E. & Fung, L. (2009). Firm survival, performance, and exchange rates. Canadian Journal of Economics, 42(2), 893-421.
Dastmalchian, A. & Javidan, M. (2009). Managerial implications of the GLOBE project: A study of 62 societies. Asian Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 47(1), 41-58.
Galang, M.C. & Tiong-Aquino, S. (2009). Chapter 28: Philippines. In L.P. Dana, M. Han, V. Ratten, & Welpe, I.M. (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Asian Entrepreneurship. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Verbeke, A., Li, L. & Goerzen, A. (2009). Toward more effective research on the multinationality-performance relationship. Management International Review, 49(2), 149-161.
Klein, S. & Wöcke, A. (2009). Protective incubators and South African MNEs. Thunderbird International Business Review, 51(4), 341-354.
Spreng, R., Shi, L.H. & Page, T. (2009). The roles of perceived service quality, customer satisfaction, and performance in determining intention in business-to-business services. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 24(8), 537-548.
Song, Z., Uy, M.A., Zhang, S. & Shi, K. (2009). A daily repeated measures study of job search and distress: Evidence from China. Human Relations, 62, 1171-1197.
Galang, M.C. (2008). Best practices in HRM: Convergence in beliefs across nine countries? International Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 13(1), 1-15.
Jung, J. C., Beamish, P. W. & Goerzen, A. (2008). FDI ownership strategy: A Japanese - US MNE comparison. Management International Review, 48(5), 491-524.
Peredo, A.M., & Moore, R.W. (2008). Reflections on management education in the context of poverty: Editor's introduction to the special issue. Journal of Management Education, 32(6), 683-696.
Rasche, A., Baur D., van Huijstee, M., Ladek, S., Naidu, J., Perla, C., Schouten, E., Valente, M. & Zhang, M. (2008). Corporations as political actors – A report on the first Swiss master class in corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(2), 151-73.
Seawright, K.W., Mitchell, R.K. & Smith, J.B. (2008). Comparative entrepreneurial cognitions and lagging Russian new venture formation: A tale of two countries. Journal of Small Business Management, 46(4), 512-35.
Goerzen, A. (2007). Global cities and multinational corporation investment. In S. Tallman (Ed.), A New Generation in International Strategic Management. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Goerzen, A. & Asmussen, C.G. (2007). The geographic orientation of multinational enterprises and its implications for performance. Research in Global Strategic Management Series (13, 65-83). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
Goerzen, A. & Beamish, P.W. (2007). The Penrose effect: “Excess” expatriates in multinational enterprises. Management International Review, 47(2), 221-239.
Goerzen, A. & Makino, S. (2007). Multinational corporation internationalization in the service sector: A study of Japanese trading companies. The Journal of International Business Studies, 38(7), 1149-1169.
Klein, S. & Wöcke, A. (2007). Emerging global contenders: The South African experience. Journal of International Management, 13(3), 319-37.
Baggs, J. (2006). Review of “Globalization unplugged: Sovereignty and the Canadian state in the twenty-first century” by Peter Urmetzer. Canadian Public Policy, 32(2), 239-240.
Baggs, J. (2006). Trade liberalization and financial leverage. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(2), 196-211.
Blyton, P. & Dastmalchian, A. (2006). Introduction: Work, life and work-life issues. In P. Blyton, B. Blunsdon, K. Reed & A. Dastmalchian (Eds.), Work-Life Integration: International Perspectives on Managing Multiple Roles (pp. 1-16). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Blyton, P. & Dastmalchian, A. (2006). Work-life integration and the changing context of work. In P. Blyton, B. Blunsdon, K. Reed & A. Dastmalchian (Eds.), Work-Life Integration: International Perspectives on Managing Multiple Roles(pp. 17-27). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Blyton, P., Blunsdon, B., Reed, K. & Dastmalchian, A. (Eds.). (2006). Work life integration: International perspectives on managing multiple roles. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Carrieri, F. & Majerbi, B. (2006). The pricing of exchange risk in emerging stock markets. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(3), 372-391.
Carrieri, F., Errunza, V. & Majerbi, B. (2006). Does emerging market exchange risk affect global equity prices? Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 41(3), 511-540.
Carrieri, F., Errunza, V. & Majerbi, B. (2006). Local risk factors in emerging markets: Are they separately priced? Journal of Empirical Finance, 13(4-5), 444-461.
Huang, J. & Dastmalchian, A. (2006). Implications of trust and distrust for organizations: Role of customer orientation in a four-nation study. Personnel Review, 35(4), 361-377.
Isobe, T., Makino, S. & Goerzen, A. (2006). Japanese horizontal keiretsu and the performance implications of membership. Asia-Pacific Journal of Management, 23(4), 453-466.
Goerzen, A. (2005). Managing alliance networks: Emerging practices of multinational corporations. Academy of Management Executive, 19(2), 94-107.
Goerzen, A. (2005). Networks and Location: Organizing the Diversified Multinational Corporation for Value Creation. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Goerzen, A. & Beamish, P. (2005). The changing character of Japanese direct investment in Canada. Canada-in-Asia Series, Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada, 3, 1-16.
Goerzen, A. & Beamish, P.W. (2005). Patterns of change in Japanese investment in Canada. Ivey Business Journal, 69(4).
Goerzen, A. & Beamish, P.W. (2005). The effect of alliance network diversity on multinational enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 26(4), 333-354.
Nam, S.H. & Han, Y.W. (2005). ‘Lead and support’ versus ‘control and command’: A case study of culture clash in a Canadian-Korean Merger. Acta Koreana, 8(1), 37-48.
Shi, L.H., Zou, S., White, J.C., McNally, R.C. & Cavusgil, S.T. (2005). Executive insights: Global account management capability: Insights from leading suppliers. Journal of International Marketing, 13(2), 93-113.
Chow, I. & Ng, I. (2004). The characteristics of Chinese personal ties (Guanxi): Evidence from Hong Kong. Organizational Studies, 25, 1075-1094.
Galang, M.C. (2004). The transferability question: Comparing HRM practices in the Philippines with the U.S. and Canada. The International Journal of Human Resources Management, 15(7), 1207-1233.
Klein, S. & Pangarkar, N. (2004). The impact of control on international joint venture performance: A contingency approach. Journal of International Marketing, 12(3), 86-107.
Klein, S. & Steadman, I. P. (2004). Management and transformation in a transition economy: Lessons from the Chinese experience. Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship.
Klein, S. & Ward, M. (2004). An emerging market player in international business education: The case of WITS Business School. In I. Alon & J. R. McIntyre (Eds.), Business education and emerging market economies: Perspectives and best practices. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic.
Nam, S.H. (2004). How do managers respond to failures: A comparison between Korea and the U.S.A. Journal of Population (Jakarta), 10(2), 79-88.
Shi, L.H., Zou, S., White, J. C., & Cavusgil, S.T. (2004). A conceptual framework of global account management capabilities and firm performance. International Business Review, 13(2), 93-113.
Craig, T.J. & King, R. (2003). Global goes Local. HI: University of Hawaii Press.
Lang, B. & Colgate, M. (2003). The IT gap. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 21(1), 29-37. Colgate, M., Nguyen, V. & Lee, C. (2003). Switching barriers in New Zealand. University of Auckland Business Review, 5(1), 23-32.
Javidan, M. & Dastmalchian, A. (2003). Culture and leadership in Iran: The land of individual achievers, strong family ties and powerful elite. Academy of Management Executive, 17(4), 124-142.
Galang, M.C. (2003). High performance work systems in Canada, Korea, and the U.S. Cross-Cultural Management: An International Journal.
Goerzen, A. & Beamish, P. (2003). Geographic scope and multinational enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 24, 1289-1306.
Su, C., Sirgy, J. & Littlefield, J.E. (2003). Is guanxi orientation bad, ethically speaking? A Study of Chinese Enterprises, Journal of Business Ethics.
Bao, Y., Zhou, Z. and Su, C. (2003). Does Face Matter in Consumer Decision Styles? A Cross-Cultural Perspective, Psychology and Marketing.
Bowen, D., Galang, M.C., and Pillai, R. (2002). The role of human resource management: An exploratory study of crosscountry variance. Human Resource Management, 41(1), 103-122. Reprinted in Asia-Pacific Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 40 No. 1, 123-145.
Nam, S. and Craig, T. (2002). Foreign direct investment by Korean firms: Profile, theory, and implementation. Journal of International Business and Economy, 3(1), 47-67.
Klein, S. and Wocke, A. (2002). South Africa’s Skills Migration Policy. Development Southern Africa.
Lau, C. M., Ng, I. & Nyaw, M. K. (2002). Chinese managerial activities: Culture versus local isomorphism. Asia-Pacific Business Review, 1-15.
Zhang, H. & Kryzanowski, L. (2002). Intraday market price integration for shares cross-listed internationally. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, 37, 203-219.
Bu, N., Peng, T.K. & Craig, T. J. (2001). Employee reactions to supervisory direction in four types of firms in Taiwan: The effects of company policy, peer consensus and independent assessment. Asia-Pacific Journal of Management, 18(1).
Bu, N., Craig, T. J. & Peng, T.K. (2001). Reactions to Authority. Thunderbird International Business Review, 43(6).
Kabasakal, H. & Dastmalchian, A. (2001). Introduction to Leadership and culture in the Middle Eastern Countries: Norms practices and effective leadership attributes in Iran, Kuwait, Turkey and Qatar. Special Issue Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50(4), 479-595.
Dastmalchian, A., Javidan, M. & Alam, K. (2001). Leadership and culture in Iran: An empirical study. Special issue applied psychology: An International Review, 50(4), 532-558.
Ng, I. & Dastmalchian, A. (2001). Organizational flexibility in Western and Asian firms: An examination of control and safeguard rules in five countries. Special Issue Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 18(1), 17-24.
Galang, M.C. (2001). High performance work systems: A source of competitive advantage for Asian firms? Journal of Labor and Industrial Relations, 21(1 & 2), 51–66.
Huenemann, R. (2001). Are China's recent transport statistics plausible? China Economic Review, 12, 368-372.
Pangarkar, N. & Klein, S. (2001). The impacts of alliance purpose and partner similarity on alliance governance. British Journal of Management, 12(4).
Su, C. & Littlefield, J.E. (2001). Entering guanxi: A business ethical dilemma in mainland China? Journal of Business Ethics, 33(3), 199-210.
Huenemann, R. (2000). Anomalies in the sino-Canadian trade data, with particular reference to the Hong Kong re- export trade. Journal of Contemporary China, 9(24), 333-343.