Scott Hofer

Scott Hofer
Professor, Harald Mohr, M.D. and Wilhelma Mohr, M.D. Research Chair in Adult Development and Aging. Director, Institute on Aging & Lifelong Health

Ph.D. 1994 (USC) joined Department in 2009

Office: COR A271

Scott M. Hofer is Director of the Institute on Aging and Lifelong Health, Professor of Psychology, and holds the Harald Mohr, M.D. and Wilhelma Mohr, M.D. Research Chair in Adult Development and Aging at the University of Victoria. He is Past President of Division 5 (Quantitative and Qualitative Methods) of the American Psychological Association, Past President of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology, and a Fellow of the Academy of Behavioral Medicine Research, American Psychological Association, Canadian Academy of Health Sciences, Gerontological Society of America, and the Royal Statistical Society. In 2016, he received an honorary doctorate from the University of Gothenburg. He currently serves on the Council of Representatives, Federation of Associations in Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

Dr. Hofer’s research is on the identification and explanation of individual differences in developmental and aging-related processes and involves analysis of existing longitudinal studies, new data collection using intensive measurement designs, and developments in research methodology focused on improving the measurement and analysis of change. He is Program Director of the NIH-funded Integrative Analysis of Longitudinal Studies on Aging and Dementia (IALSA) research network, comprised of over 100 longitudinal studies, for international comparative research and synthesis of results from many different studies. He has used intensive measurement designs to evaluate the within-person day-to-day dynamics among health behaviors, cognition, and well-being to better enable the assessment and identification of critical changes in functioning. He and his colleagues are working to leverage web-based technologies to bring the assessment of neurocognitive and patient-reported outcomes into the home and clinic to enable earlier and more accurate decisions about changes in health, cognition, and quality of life.

Dr. Hofer's CV.


  • Lifespan development and aging
  • Longitudinal studies
  • Developmental research methods
  • Detection of individual change in functioning


Rush, J., Rast, P., Almeida, D. M., & Hofer, S. M. (in press). Modeling long-term changes in daily within-person associations: An application of multilevel SEM. Psychology and Aging.

Bendayan, R., Kelly, A., Hofer, S.M., Piccinin, A.M., Muniz-Terrera, G. (2018). Memory decline and depression onset in US and European older adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 1-20. doi: 10.1177/0898264318813019.

Duggan, E. C., Graham, R. B., Piccinin, A. M., Clouston, S., Muniz-Terrera, G. & Hofer, S. M. (2018). A Systematic Review of Pulmonary Function and Cognition in Aging. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 1-16.  DOI: 10.1093/geronb/gby128. PMID: 30380129

Karr, J. E., Areshenkoff, C. N., Rast, P., Hofer, S. M., Iverson, G. L., & Garcia-Barrera, M. A. (2018). The unity and diversity of executive functions: A systematic review and re-analysis of latent variable studies. Psychological Bulletin, 144(11), 1147-1185.

Karr, J. E., Graham, R. B., Hofer, S. M., & Muniz-Terrera, G. (2018). When does cognitive decline begin? A systematic review of preclinical change point studies on accelerated decline in cognitive and neurological outcomes preceding mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and death. Psychology and Aging, 33(2),195-218.

Robitaille, A., Piccinin, A.M., Johansson, B., Hofer, S.M. Muniz, G. (2018). An examination of the heterogeneity in the pattern and association between rates of change in grip strength and global cognition in late life. A multivariate growth mixture modeling approach. Age and Ageing, 47(5), 692-697. doi: 10.1093/ageing/afy048.

Robitaille, A., Van den Hout A., Machado, R.J.M., Bennett, D.A., Čukić, I., Deary, I.J., Hofer, S.M., Hoogendijke, E.O., Huisman, M., Johansson, B., Koval, A.V., Van der Noordt, M., Piccinin, A.M., Rijnhart, J.J.M., Singh-Manoux, A., Skoog, J., Skoog, I., Starr, J., Vermunt, L., Clouston, S. Muniz-Terrera, G. (2018). Transitions across cognitive states and death among older adults in relation to education: a multi-state survival model using data from six longitudinal studies. Alzheimer's & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, 14(4), 462-472.

Zammit, A.R., Robitaille, A., Piccinin, A.M., Muniz-Terrera, G. & Hofer, S.M. (2018). Associations between aging-related changes in grip strength and cognitive function in older adults: A systematic review. Journal of Gerontology: Medical Sciences.  doi: 10.1093/gerona/gly046. PMID: 29528368.

Bendayan, R., Cooper, R., Wloch, E. G., Hofer, S. M., Piccinin, A. M., & Muniz, G. (2017). Hierarchy and speed of loss in physical functioning: A comparison across older US and English men and women. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences, 72(8) 1117-1122. doi:10.1093/gerona/glw209

Bendayan, R., Piccinin, A. M., Hofer, S. M., Cadar, D., Johansson, B., Muniz-Terrera, G. (2017). Decline in memory, visuospatial ability and crystalized cognitive abilities in older adults: Normative aging or terminal decline? Journal of Aging Research, 2017, 9 pages. doi: 10.1155/2017/6210105.

Bendayan, R., Piccinin, A. M., Hofer, S. M., & Muniz-Terrera, G. (2017). Are changes in self-rated health associated with memory decline in older adults? Journal of Aging and Health, 29 (8), 1410-1423.

Cadar, D., Robitaille, A., Clouston, S. A. P., Hofer, S. M., Piccinin, A. M., Muniz-Terrera, G. (2017). An international evaluation of cognitive reserve and memory changes in early old age in 10 European countries. Neuroepidemiology, 48, 9-20. doi: 10.1159/000452276. PMID: 28219074.

Denier, N., Clouston, S. A. P., Richards, M., & Hofer, S. M. (2017). Retirement and cognition: A life course view. Advances in Life Course Research, 31, 11-21.

Graham, E.K., Rutsohn, J. P., Bastarache, E.D., Elleman, L.G., Turiano, N.A, Bendayan, R., Batterham, P., Bennett, D.B., Deeg, D.H.G., Gerstorf, D., Katz, M.J., Kuh, D., Lipton, R.B, Pedersen, N.L., Piccinin, A.M., Reynolds, C.A., Sharp, E.S., Spiro, A., Muniz-Terrera, G., Willis, S.L., Yoneda, T.B., Zelinski, E.M., Hofer, S.M., & Mroczek, D.K. (2017). Personality predicts mortality risk: An Integrative Data Analysis of 15 international longitudinal studies. Journal of Research in Personality, 70, 174-186. Doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2017.07.005.

Muniz, G., Robitaille, A., Kelly A., Johansson, B., Hofer, S. M., & Piccinin, A.M. (2017). Latent growth curve analysis with time-varying covariates: The need to match longitudinal methods to the research questions. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 82, 158-166. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.09.001

Rush, J., & Hofer, S. M. (2017). Design-based approaches for improving measurement in developmental science. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development: Developmental Methodology, 82, 67-83. DOI: 10.1111/mono.12299.

Brown, C. L., Robitaille, A., Dixon, R. A., Zelinski, E., Hofer, S. M., & Piccinin, A. M. (2016). Cognitive Activity Mediates the Association between Social Activity and Cognitive Performance: A Longitudinal Study. Psychology and Aging, 31(8):831-846.

Cadar, D., Piccinin, A. M., Hofer, S. M., Johansson, B., Muniz-Terrera, G. (2016). Education, Occupational Class, and Cognitive Decline in Preclinical Dementia. The Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry, 29, 5-15.

Cadar, D., Stephan B. C., Jagger, C., Johansson, B., Hofer, S. M., Piccinin, A.M., Muniz-Terrera, G. (2016). The role of cognitive reserve on terminal decline: a cross-cohort analysis from two European studies: OCTO-Twin, Sweden, and Newcastle 85+, UK. Int J Geriatric Psychiatry, 31, 601-610. 

Daniels, S-A., Kelly, A., Bachand, D., Simeoni, E., Hall, C., Hofer, S. M., Hayashi, A. (2016). Call to care: the impact of 24-hour postdischarge telephone follow-up in the treatment of surgical day care patients. The American Journal of Surgery, 211(5), 963-967.

Kelly, A., Calamia, M., Koval, A., Terrera, G. M., Piccinin, A. M., Clouston, S., Hassing, L., Bennett, D. A., Johansson, B., Hofer, S. M. (2016). Independent and interactive impacts of hypertension and diabetes mellitus on verbal memory: A coordinated analysis of longitudinal data from England, Sweden, and the United States. Psychology and Aging, 31(3), 262-273.

Kypriotakis, G., Hofer, S.M., Piccinin, A.M. & Deimling, G. (2016). Correlated and Coupled Trajectories of Cancer-related Worries and Depressive Symptoms among Long-Term Cancer Survivors. Behavioral Medicine, 42(2), 82-92.

Clouston, S. A., Richards, M., Cadar, D., Hofer, S. M. Educational Inequalities in Health Behaviors at Midlife: Is There a Role for Early-life Cognition? (2015). Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 56, 323-340.